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2018初中英语语法之有关非谓语动词的重要考点

来源:中考网整理    作者:中考网编辑    2017-09-10 12:43:33

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  新一轮中考复习备考周期正式开始,中考网为各位初三考生整理了中考五大必考学科的知识点,主要是对初中三年各学科知识点的梳理和细化,帮助各位考生理清知识脉络,熟悉答题思路,希望各位考生可以在考试中取得优异成绩!下面是《2018初中英语语法之有关非谓语动词的重要考点》,仅供参考!

  一、考查不定式、现在分词与过去分词的基本区别
 
  从时间关系上看,不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成,同时注意不定式和现在分词的完成式也表完成(尤其是表示有明显的先后关系的完成);从主动与被动来看,不定式和现在分词表主动,过去分词表被动,同时注意不定式和现在分词的被动式也表被动(不定式的被动式在表被动的同时还兼表未来,现在分词的被动式表被动的同时还兼表进行)。如:
 
  1. I send you 100 dollars today, the rest _________ in a year. (湖南卷)
 
  A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed
 
  【分析】答案选 C。动词不定式表示未来的动作。
 
  2. _________from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. (湖北卷)
 
  A. Being separated B. Having separated C. Having been separated D. To be separated
 
  【分析】答案选 C。因为Australia与separate是被动关系,且separate发生在谓语动词has之前,所以用现在分词的完成被动式作原因状语。
 
  二、考查非谓语动词的主动式与被动式
 
  结合句子意思,考察非谓语动词与相应逻辑主语的关系,若为主动关系,用主动式;若为被动关系,用被动式。此时要特别注意,过去分词没有相应的被动式,因为它本身可以表示被动。如:
 
  1. The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well_________. (湖北卷)
 
  A. to spend B. spent C. being spent D. spending
 
  【分析】答案选B。因money与spend是被动关系,所以用过去分词。
 
  2. The prize of the game show is$30000 and an all expenses _________ vacation to China. (北京卷)
 
  A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid
 
  【分析】答案选B。因all expenses与pay是被动关系,故用过去分词。注意句中的an 不是修饰 expenses,而是修饰vacation。
 
  3. When _________help, one often says, “Thank you.” Or “It’s kind of you.” (福建卷)
 
  A. offering B. to offer C. to be offered D. offered
 
  【分析】答案选 D。因一个人说“谢谢”,应当是他被提供了帮助,所以要用过去分词,When offered help… =When he is offered help…
 
  三、考查非谓语动词完成式的用法
 
  非谓语动词(不定式、动名词和现在分词)的完成式主要表示发生在谓语动作之前的动作。做题时要注意根据题干所提供的语境来推断这种先后关系。如:
 
  1. The storm left, _________a lot of damage to this area. (全国卷I)
 
  A. caused B. to have caused C. to cause D. having caused
 
  【分析】答案选D。因The storm与cause是主动关系,排除选项A;不定式作状语,前面通常不用逗号,排除B和C;因暴风雨给这个地区“造成损失”是在“结束”之前,所以用完成式。
 
  2. More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays, _________ advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. (上海卷)
 
  A. taking B. taken C. having taken D. having been taken
 
  【分析】答案选 A。因people与take advantage of是主动关系,排除选项B和D;take不会发生在谓语are signing up之前,不用完成式,排除C。
 
  四、考查非谓语动词用作伴随状语
 
  在通常情况下,表伴随情况的应用现在分词。如:
 
  1. “You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted, _________away. (全国卷III)
 
  A. run B. running C. to run D. ran
 
  【分析】答案选B。现在分词作伴随状语。
 
  2. He glanced over at her, _________ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. (广东卷)
 
  A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted
 
  【分析】答案选 A。因为he与note是主谓关系,且note与谓语动词glanced的动作同时发生,所以用现在分词的一般式作伴随状语。
 
  3. Daddy didn’t mind what we were doing, as long as we were together, _________fun. (重庆卷)
 
  A. had B. have C. to have D. having
 
  【分析】答案选 D。用现在分词表伴随情况。
 
  说明:有时过去分词也可表伴随(注意过去分词同时还表被动关系),但高考很少考查此用法。如:
 
  He came in, followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。
 
  五、考查非谓语动词用作目的状语
 
  在通常情况下,用作目的状语只能是不定式。如:
 
  1. “Can the project be finished as planned?” “Sure, _________it completed in time, we’ll work two more hours a day.” (福建卷)
 
  A. having got B. to get C. getting D. get
 
  【分析】答案选 B。作目的状语只能用动词不定式。
 
  2. _________ more about university courses, call (920) 746-3789. (浙江卷)
 
  A. To find out B. Finding out C. Find out D. Having found out
 
  【分析】答案选 A。作目的状语要用动词不定式。
 
  3. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just _________a look at the sports stars. (上海卷)
 
  A. had B. having C. to have D. have
 
  【分析】答案选 C。“看看体育明星”是“在体育馆外等三个小时”的目的,作目的状语只能用动词不定式。
 
  六、考查非谓语动词用作结果状语
 
  1. 用现在分词表结果。如:
 
  He fired, killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。
 
  Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, _________a record US $ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. (山东卷)
 
  A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching
 
  【分析】答案选B。伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在分词作结果状语。
 
  2. 用不定式表结果。如:
 
  He returned home to find his wife waiting for him. 他回到家发现他的妻子在等他。
 
  He hurried to the station only _________ that the train had left. (广东卷)
 
  A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found
 
  【分析】答案选 A。因为only to do是习语,意为“结果却,不料”,hurried和find是先后发生的两个动作。
 
  七、考查非谓语动词用作宾语补足语
 
  原则上,所有的非谓语动词形式均可用作宾语补足语,其区别是:不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成和被动。如:
 
  1. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise_________. (北京卷)
 
  A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on
 
  【分析】答案选A。作with的宾语的补足语要用非谓语动词,排除选项B和C;与谓语动作同时发生用现在分词作宾语补足语,排除表示将来的不定式选项D。
 
  2. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it _________often enough (天津卷)
 
  A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained
 
  【分析】答案选D。宾语it与explain是被动关系,用过去分词作宾补,have sth done意为“请人做某事”。
 
  八、考查非谓语动词的逻辑主语问题
 
  按照英语习惯,非谓语动词的逻辑主语应与句子一致,否则就应调整句子结构。如:
 
  While watching television, _________. (全国卷III)
 
  A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings
 
  C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings
 
  【分析】答案选C。因为watching的逻辑主语一定是we,排除选项A和B;又因在hear后作宾语补足语的是省略了to的不定式,所以选项D中的rings是错误的。
 
  九、考查非谓语动词用作主语的问题
 
  原则上说,动词用作主语,只能是不定式或动名词,不能是分词形式。这类考题命题还往往用动词原形作为干扰项进行考查,同学们做题需引起注意。如:
 
  It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview; _________the answers ready will be of great help. (北京卷)
 
  A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having
 
  【分析】答案选D。动名词短语用作主语。
 
  十、考查“(be +) 过去分词+介词”结构
 
  有一类“be+过去分词+介词”结构,如be interested in, be worried about, be lost in, be dressed in 等,也往往是命题的热点。如:
 
  1. _________ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. (江苏卷)
 
  A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing
 
  【分析】答案选 B。因表示“迷路于”是lose oneself in,题中没有oneself, 所以the two students与lose是被动关系,应该用过去分词作状语。
 
  2. _________ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. (湖南卷)
 
  A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed
 
  【分析】答案选 A。由dress的宾语一定是人或oneself可知,dress与he是动宾关系,即he与dress是被动关系,要用过去分词作状语,Dressed in …=As he is dressed in …
 
  十一、非谓语动词的综合考查
 
  有时命题者会将多个知识点综合起来进行考查,如在考查被动式的同时兼考完成式,在考查不定式的同时兼考分词,等等。如:
 
  1. I don’t want _________ like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. (天津卷)
 
  A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded
 
  【分析】答案选 A。表示“想要做某事”want后只能接to do,排除选项C;sound like中sound是系动词,属不及物动词,不能用于被动语态,排除选项B;sound 发生在want后,故不用完成式,排除选项D。
 
  2. “Is Bob still performing?” “I’m afraid not. He is said _________ the stage already as he has become an official.” (江苏卷)
 
  A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left
 
  【分析】答案选 A。因he与leave是主动关系,不用被动式,排除选项C和D;由already可知,要用完成式。

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