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2018初中英语语法之定语从句用法详解

来源:中考网整理    作者:中考网编辑    2017-09-09 14:28:29

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  新一轮中考复习备考周期正式开始,中考网为各位初三考生整理了中考五大必考学科的知识点,主要是对初中三年各学科知识点的梳理和细化,帮助各位考生理清知识脉络,熟悉答题思路,希望各位考生可以在考试中取得优异成绩!下面是《2018初中英语语法之定语从句用法详解》,仅供参考!

  在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句,被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,引导定语从句的有关系代词who,whom,whose,which,that等和关系副词where,when,why等,关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份。
 
  1.由who引导的定语从句中,who用作主语,如:This is the boy who often helps me.
 
  2.由whom引导的定语从句中,whom用作宾语,如:The man whom you are waiting for has gone home.
 
  3.由whose引导的定语从句中,whose用作定语,如:Do you know the girl whose skirt is white?
 
  4.由which引导的定语从句中,which用作主语或谓语动词的宾语或介词的宾语,如:
 
  The room in which there is a machine is a work shop.
 
  The river which is in front of my house is very clean.
 
  This is the pen which you want.
 
  注意:
 
  (1)whom,which用作介词宾语时,介词可放在whom、which之前,也可放在从句原来的位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上。如:He is the very person whom we must take good care of.
 
  (2)引导非限制性定语从句时,必须用关系代词which,不用that,如:I have lost
 
  my bag,which I like very much.
 
  (3)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致。
 
  5.由that引导的定语从句中,that可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语,如:
 
  The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun.?
 
  注意在下面几种情况下必须用that引导定语从句。
 
  (1)先行词是不定代词all,few,little,much,something,nothing,anything等,如:
 
  All that we have to do is to practise English.
 
  (2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,如
 
  The first letter that I got from him will be kept.
 
  (3)先行词被all,any,every,each,few,little,no,some等修饰,如
 
  I've eaten up all the food that you gave me.
 
  (4)先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last修饰时如
 
  He is the only person that I want to talk with.
 
  (5)先行词既有人又有物时,如:
 
  They talked about persons and things that they met.
 
  (6)当句中已有who时,为避免重复,如:Who is the man that is giving us the
 
  class?
 
  6.由when,where,why引导的定语从句,如:
 
  I don't know the reason why he was late.
 
  This is the place where we have lived for 5 years.
 
  I'll never forget the day when I met Mr Li for the first time.
 
  注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用that(which),如果从句的谓语动词是不及物的,就用where引导。This is the house Which/that he has lived in for 15 years.(Where he has lived for 15 year.)
 
  7.限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
 
  (1)限制性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词有who,whom,whose,which,of which等,这些关系代词都不能省略。
 
  (2)非限制性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明,没有这种从句,不影响主句意思的完整,一般用逗号把主句和从句分开,关系代词用which,不用that;指人时可用who,如:I have two brothers,who are both students.
 
  8.如何简化定语从句
 
  (1).定语从句简化为形容词或形容词短语作后置定语。如:
 
  My grandfather lives in a village that is far away from here.
 
  →My grandfather lives in a village far away from here.我祖父住在离这儿很远的一个村子。
 
  This is a book that is worth reading.
 
  →This is a book worth reading.这是一本值得看的书。
 
  (2)定语从句简化为现在分词或现在分词短语作前置或后置定语。
 
  The man who is standing under the tree is our English teacher.
 
  →The man standing under the tree is our English teacher.
 
  站在树下面的那个人是我们的英语老师。
 
  I saw the house that was burning at that time.→I saw the burning house at that time.
 
  当时我看到那房子在燃烧。
 
  (3)定语从句简化为过去分词短语作后置定语。
 
  I like to see the films which are directed by Zhang Yimou.→I like to see the films directed by Zhang Yimou.我喜欢看张艺谋导演的电影。
 
  She is the girl who was praised at the school meeting.→She is the girl praised at the school meeting.她就是在校会上受表彰的那个女孩。
 
  (4)定语从句简化为不定式作后置定语。
 
  He is always the first person that comes to school.→He is always the first person to come to school.他总是第一个到校。
 
  The report which will be given tomorrow is important to us.→The report to be given tomorrow is important to us.明天要作的报告对我们很重要。
 
  (5)定语从句简化为what从句。
 
  I couldn't remember the words that he said.→I couldn't remember what he said.
 
  我记不得他说的话。

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