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初中英语语法之非谓语动词

来源:中考网 作者:冯晓肖 2013-01-22 23:12:32

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初中英语语法之非谓语动词

 

  非谓语动词

  1.定义:动词除在句子中作谓语以外,还具有名词、形容词及副词的性质,在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语等,这就是动词的非谓语动词。可分为三种:动词不定式、分词和动名词。

  2.动词不定式:to + 动词原形(在某些情况下可以不带to )。(没有人称和数的变化,可以有自己的宾语和状语,可以有时态和语态的变化)

  ○1 一般式:主动语态:to do , 被动语态:to be + 动词过去分词(表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生或之后发生)

  ○2 进行式:主动语态:to be doing , 被动语态:无(表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生)

  ○3 完成式:主动语态:to have +动词过去分词,被动语态:to have been +动词过去分词 (表示动作或状态在谓语动作之前就发生)

  ○4 用法:

  A. 作主语:To learn a foreign language is not easy . = It's not easy to learn a foreign language .

  B. 作表语:The most important thing is to finish the work on time .

  C. 作宾语:

  a. 动词+to do . He decided to buy a new watch . (agree, choose, want, hope, like, wish, learn, love, plan, try, start, afford …)

  b. 动词+疑问词+to do I don't know where to put the bike .

  c. 动词+形式宾语(it)+宾补+to do I find it important to learn a second foreign language .

  D. 作补语:

  a. 动词+宾语+to do Tom asked me to show him the new shoes . (tell, wish, ask, want, like, beg, invite, allow, encourage…)

  b. 动词+宾语+不带to的动词He often saw Tom play football .(see, hear, feel, watch, notice, have, make, let…)

  E. 作状语:

  a. 表示目的:He went to Guangzhou to see his sons . He got up early in order to catch the first bus .

  b. 表示结果:He is too tired to walk any farther . They aren't old enough to go to school .

  c. 表示原因:He is sorry to hear that . I am glad to see you .

  F.作定语:I have something to tell you . I want to buy something to eat .

  ○5 动词不定式to 的省略:

  A. 在感官动词feel, hear, see, watch, notice 及使役动词have, let, make等后面要省to,但在变被动语态时要还原不定式to。

  I often saw him go out of the room .-------- He was often seen to go out of the room by me .

  B.在had better, would rather, do nothing but等后面常省to。

  ○6 动词不定式的否定形式:not + to do ,有时也可以用-never + to do 结构。

  3.动名词:动词原形+ing 。具有名词、动词一些特征。

  ○1 一般式:主动语态:doing ,被动语态:being + 动词过去分词(表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生或之后发生)

  ○2 完成式:主动语态:having +动词过去分词,被动语态:having been +动词过去分词(表示动作或状态在谓语动词的动作或状态之前就发生)Children enjoy watching animated cartoon . I don't remember having ever seen the film .

  ○3 动名词的否定形式:not + 动名词(v-ing) I regret not being able to help you .

  ○4 用法:

  A. 作主语:

  a. 动名词作主语如果太长,可以用形式主语it代替。Learning English is very important .--- It's very important to learn English .

  b. No + 动名词表示"禁止"。No smoking, No parking .

  B. 作宾语:He finished doing his homework .

  C. 作表语:His favourite sport is playing basketball .

  D. 作定语:shopping basket, finishing line . (表明名词的用途、功能等)

  E. 动名词的复合结构:名词所有格、形容词物主代词+动名词。Do you mind my / Wei Fang's opening the window ?

  4.分词:动词原形+ing 。具有形容词、副词和动词一些特征。(可分为现在分词、过去分词)

  现在分词

  ○1 一般式:主动语态:doing ,被动语态:being + 动词过去分词(表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生)

  ○2 完成式:主动语态:having +动词过去分词,被动语态:having been +动词过去分词(表示动作或状态在谓语动词的动作或状

  态之前就发生)

  ○3 动名词的否定形式:not + 动名词(v-ing) No understanding the meaning of the words, he couldn't explain the sentence .

  ○4 用法:

  A. 作表语。The result is surprising .

  B. 作定语。Developing country (主谓关系) sleeping boy (boy 所做的动作)

  C. 作状语。Passing by the house, he saw a girl playing the piano . = when he was passing by the house , he saw a girl playing the piano .

  D. 作宾补。I found him lying on the grass.

  过去分词

  ○1 形式:规则动词+ed,和不规则动词的过去分词。

  ○2 过去分词的否定形式:not + 动词过去分词。

  ○3 用法:

  A. 作表语:My bike is broken . He is very worried .

  B. 作定语:developed country, fallen leaves, spoken English .

  C. 作状语:Asked why he was absent, he said he was ill . = When he was asked why he was absent, he said he was ill .

  D. 作宾补:You had better have your shoes mended . I had my hair cut yesterday .

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