来源：网络 作者：匿名 2009-10-26 15:05:41
58.部分用in的短语：in English, in a good way, in a hurry,
in pen / ink (见105), in the day(见92), in different sizes,
in different shapes, in a difficult situation， in good health,
in a red coat / in red(见46), in style, in the open air(露天场所)
2常见比较级/最高级句型：He runs faster than me. (有than)
He did better than any other student in the school. (参照48)
Tom is the cleverest boy in his class. (某个范围内)
He is the taller of the two (boys). (两者，此句型中加the)
He is the tallest of the three (boys). (三者)
Which is better, tea or milk? (两者选择)
Which is the best, tea, milk or water? (三者选择)
It’s the second longest river in China. （序数词后用最高级。）
He cried harder and harder. She is getting taller and taller.
类似：bigger and bigger / happier and happier / fatter and fatter
/ stronger and stronger / richer and richer / worse and worse…
另一种情况：more and more beautiful / slowly / carefully /…
The more difficult English is, the harder you should study.
The younger we are, the more energy we have.
The more you eat, the fatter you will get.
5“越来越多的…”more and more +名词
More and more people are getting richer and richer.
We need more and more desks / paper / trees / water ….
6“…得多”much + 形容词/副词比较级
This room is much bigger than that one.
以及：much more careful/difficult/tiring/similar/mysterious…
7“另外的…(个) …”结构：数量+ more + 名词
one more towel, three more suits, many more tiles,
much more truth, some more meat, a lot more wood,
a little more experience, once more = one more time = again.
这种结构有时也可用another + 数字 + 名词替代：
five more trees = another five trees (记住词的位置)
60.talk, tell, say, speak: 1talk只作不及物动词。
Don’t talk in class. Shall we talk about our English study?
He is talking with his teacher. May I talk to you?
(talk with/to sb talk about sth)
Mr. Li told us an interesting story. Who told you the news?
3say必须接有内容。Please say it in English. He said nothing.
“I disagree with you.” said Tom. What will you say?
say 若接sb, 则需先加to: I must say sorry to you.
“I overslept this morning.” he said to me.
4speak“说话”不及物动词。He spoke too fast for me to follow.
接人时先加介词to. May I speak to Mr. Smith?
可表说话的能力。The baby can speak now.
There is something wrong with his throat, he can’t speak.
“演讲，发言”Who will speak in the meeting?
61。sometimes/some times/sometime/some time:
sometimes: “有时”=at times. He is imes late for school.
some times: “几次”I have been to Nanjing some times.
sometime: “某一时刻”I bought it sometime last spring.
We’ll meet again sometime next week.
some time: “一段时间”We have to stay here for some time.
62.need 的用法：1need可当情态动词（和can等用法类似，但need只用于疑问句或否定句中）：Need I go now? (need 在一般疑问句的开头) I needn’t tell you the answer. (否定句中直接在need后加not) 【当情态动词时，need无时态变化。】
2need 可当行为动词（和want 等用法类似）：
He needs a bike. (后可直接加名词)
I need to go over my lessons. (后接带to不定式)
Do you need to have a rest? （一般疑问句中do, does, did在句首）
We don’t need to wait for her coming. (否定句中do,does,did提前)
The TV needs to be repaired. = The TV needs repairing.】
63.do with 与deal with: 都译为“处理，对付，安排，应付”
What have you done with the milk? 用what提问。
How shall we deal with this problem? 用how提问。
下面两句由此而来：Could you tell me what to do with the milk?
Could you tell me how to deal with this problem?
64.就近原则：常见的有：Either you or Lucyis wrong.
There is a dog and two cats in the yard. (there be句型)
Not only you but (also) Iam strict in the work.
Neither you nor Lucy has seen the film before.
65.主谓一致：One/Neither of you is right. （单数谓语）
Tom, with his friends, has gone. (主语是Tom, 单数谓语)
This pair of shoes looks beautiful. （主语是pair, 单数谓语）
The shoes look beautiful. （主语无pair, 复数谓语）
Every boy and every girl has a chance to do it. （单数谓语）
The old need to be looked after carefully. The young are energetic.
Mr. and Mrs Green are from America. 指格林夫妇 (复数谓语)
The teacher and writer is an able man.指教师兼作家, 一个人，单数谓语。
Both you and I are excited about the news. （复数谓语）
the number of与a number of参见39. （分数表达见50）
It’s quite an easy question. He is quite a clever boy.
It’s such an important lesson.(另见33) Lily is really a lazy girl.
What size do you want? What will you do with the problem?
What’s the population of China? What day is it today?
What’s the date today? What’s the price of this one?
68.there be部分用法：1There is only a student taking notes now.
There is no need to open the box. There are 20 trees to be planted.
2常有以下结构: there may/will/must/is going to/used to/…be. …
69.常见表否定的词或短语:no, not, hardly, few, little, neither, nor, nothing, nobody, none, nowhere等.
without anything, too tired to go any further
但前缀如dis--, un--, in--或后缀如--less,并不表否定。
70.常见后接动词原形的词或短语: why not / had better / please /would you please / let / make / 情态动词，等等。
【注意否定形式：had better/ would you please/ let直接加not + 动原；而please加don’t+动原】
71.常见后接动词ing的词或短语：finish /enjoy /practice /give up /
end up /put off /consider /keep /feel like /prefer…to…/can’t help /
be busy /be worth /take turns /miss(错过) /spend /have fun /介词等。
72.常见后接带to不定式的词或短语：want /hope /wish /allow /encourage /ask /tell /pretend /decide /plan/invite /urge/ advise/warn/ seem /in order (为了) /疑问词，等等。 另外，it作形式主语，后也常有带to不定式。 【否定：以上大多词 + not + to do sth】
73.被动语态(be +v.过去分词)用法：I did it. →It was done.
双宾:He told us a story.→We were told a story.→A story was told to us. She passed me a pen.→I was passed a pen.→A pen was passed to me. 情态动词:We can make a plan. →A plan can be made.
进行时态:Tom is writing a letter.→A letter is being written by Tom.
完成时态：I have finished the work. →The work has been finished.
74.名词或所属格作定语：1强调性别时a man doctor / two men doctors ； a woman teacher / six women teachers 被修饰词是单数时，性别也用单数；被修饰词是复数时，性别也用复数。
2a girl actor / four girl actors a boy player / two boy players
a bus station / some bus stations 复数只变被修饰的词。
3a boys’ team / a gentlemen’s holiday / the Teachers’ Day /
the Children’s Day “复数 + ’s ”作定语，译为“…的…”
4Father’s Day / Mother’s Day 此处“单数 + ’s ”作定语。
（附：and连接的名词所属格：Lucy’s and Ann’s fathers are workers. 分别是两个人的爸爸，所以应分别加“’s”
Lucy and Ann’s father is very interesting. 两个人共有的爸爸，所以在两人后只加一个“’s”。）
75.win与beat区别：win后加物：I’m sure Jim will win the match. We won the first place in the sports meeting.
而beat后加的是人：I’m afraid they will beat us.
I hope we can beat the boys’ team. (男子队，相当于人。)
76.it/that/one的部分用法：1it 指上文的某个事物，和上文是同一个。This book is very useful. I will take good care of it.
it也可指上文所说的事：My son has lost himself in the computer games. I’m worried about it. 2that与上文所说是同一类，但不是同一个，常指不可数名词。The food in China is quite different from that in America. The weather of Hainan is better than that of Gansu. that也可指上文所说的事：A: I had an accident and broke my legs. B: I’m sorry to hear that. 3one 指代上文所说的某类可数名词单数，但不是同一个物。This sweater is too expensive, do you have another one?(也指毛衣，但不是上文那个)
77.at/by the end of, in the end 的区别：
1at the end of +时间点或地点，“在…的尽头，在…的末尾”
They will have a sports meeting at the end of March. (加时间)
He put some books at the end of the bed. (加地点)
2by the end of +时间点，“截止到…末”
若接过去的时间点，常用过去完成时：They had planted six thousand trees by the end of last month. 若接将来的时间，常用一般将来时：We shall finish the work by the end of next month.
3in the end “最后”，后不加of 短语：They wanted to find a place to rest in, in the end, they saw a village.
78.have gone to/have been to/have been in: 1have gone to+地点“已去了…（还未回来）”-I can’t find those children, where are they?
-They have gone to the farm. (去了农场，不在这儿)
2have been to+地点“去过…（原来去过，现在已回）”句尾常接次数或多个地点或before，或句中常有ever, never等。
She has been to Qingdao three times. I have been to two big cities.
Have you been to Dalian before? I have never/ever been to Dalian.
I have never been there before. (此短语省略了to)
3have been in+地点，“已在…（多久了）”句尾常接for+时间段，或since +时间点/一般过去时的句子。
Peter has been in China for a long time.
I’ve been here for 2 hours/since 2 hours ago. (此短语省略了in)
79.all/whole用法：all (of) the land / all (of) the class / all (of) the students…【all 在定冠词the 前】 the whole school / the whole country / the whole area…【whole 在定冠词the 后】
80.a bit / a little区别：都可作副词，后直接加形容词和副词。
I’m a bit / a little hungry. She feels a bit / a little tired.
I have only a little drink. She ate a little bread and went out.
(a little 直接加名词) 而下文：I have only a bit of drink.
She ate a bit of bread and went out. (a bit 先加of再加名词)
“擅长”：be good at / do well in
“不擅长”：be bad in / be poor in / be weak in / do badly in
“对…有利”：be good for “对…有害”：be bad for
82. 表数量的词和短语的部分用法：1none / all / some / most / plenty of / a lot of (lots of) 后既可接可数名词复数，也可接不可数名词。2many / (a) few / a number of / several只接可数名词复数。3much / (a) little / a bit of只接不可数名词。
83.易用错的副词：1really可修饰动词、副词和形容词，常在它们前面。I really love reading. I really miss you. (修饰动词)
Tom speaks really quickly. 汤姆说得非常快。（修饰副词）
It’s really kind of you. 你真好。 (修饰形容词)
2very much常修饰动词want, miss, hate, love, like, dislike, enjoy, take after(长得像…), move(使…感动), excite(使…激动)等等。常在句尾。Jack wants to go there very much. 杰克很想去那儿。
I hate reciting the words very much. 我很讨厌背单词。
He enjoyed the film very much. 他很喜欢这部电影。
He takes after his mother very much. 他长得很像他妈妈。
(very much 不可修饰形容词和副词：I’m happy very much. He is lucky very much.都是错误的。)
She is very kind. I am very happy. Peter speaks very slowly.
(very不可修饰动词：I very like English. He very misses you.等类似结构都是错误的。)
84.常用于现在完成时的词或短语：for（后加时间段，句中谓语用延续性动词）；since（后加时间点或一般过去时的句子，主句谓语用延续性动词）；How long（对时间段或for与since引导的内容提问，句中谓语也用延续性动词）in/all one’s life（在某人一生）；in/during the past/last+时间段 (在最近的…时间内) ；so far（到目前为止）；yet（用于句尾，用在疑问句或否定句中）；already (用于句中或句尾，用在肯定的陈述句中) ；ever；never；just；before(单独用在句子末尾，常用此时态。但若时间段加before, 常用过去完成时) 以及recently等.
She is a kind girl. What bad weather! I bought a new bike.
The girl is kind. His face turned red. It tastes sweet.
He ran quickly. Please speak loudly. Tim lives alone. 修饰动词
She is very angry. He felt too tired. I’m so lucky. 修饰形容词
He got up quite early. She did it very well. 修饰副词
Unluckily, I failed the English exam. 修饰整个句子
86.everyday与every day: everyday是形容词，后接名词，“日常的”。He is practicing everyday English. every day是副词，作时间状语，“每天”。We speak English every day.
87.everyone与every one: 1everyone“每个人；大家；所有人”，只指人。后不接of短语。Everyone is here except Tom.
2every one“每一个”既可指人，也可指物。后要接of短语。Every one of us has a dictionary. Every one of the trees is tall.
88.none与no one: 1no one“没有一人”只指人,后不接of短语。
No one has been to Beihai Park. No one told us about it.
None of the children has/have been to Beihai Park.
A: How many elephants did you see there? B: None.
89.乘交通工具之表达:1by bike/ car/ sea(ship)/ air(plane) (无冠词)
2on a horseback /his bike /the plane /a ship (有冠词或限定词)
3in his/a car (car前用in) 4on foot 5动词短语: ride a bike /a horse; drive a car; walk; take a plane/ taxi/ bus; fly
90.kind of 与kinds of:
1kind of 单独用，表示“有点”，后接形容词或副词：
He is kind of thin.”他有点瘦” I feel kind of hungry.”我有点饿”
Uncle Wang speaks kind of quickly. 王叔叔说得有点快。
2若kind of前有a, this, that等，译为“一种，这种，那种” 后加名词。
That kind of question is difficult to answer. 那类问题难回答。
3熟记一些短语：all kinds of...“各种各样的...”many kinds of“很多种类的”different kinds of“不同种类的” 后加名词。 动词，后接语言。Do you speak English?
91.rain / snow / wind的常见修饰词：a strong wind“一阵强风”
a heavy rain“一场大雨”heavy snow“大雪”（以上是名词短语）
blow hard“猛烈地吹”snow heavily“下大雪”rain hard/heavily“下大雨”（以上是动词短语）
92.day的部分用法：1on Teachers’ Day表节日或周几前用“on”.
2in the day / daytime“在白天”前加“in”。 3in eight days“八天后”用“in”。 4(in) those / these days“在过去 / 现在”
5today, next/last/this/that/every/all day等前面常不加介词。
同样，on Sunday/Monday/.../Saturday介词用的是on（有时可省略）, 若有next/last/this/that/every等时不再加on.
93.个别名词的部分用法：1family“家庭；家庭成员”指整体时，表示单数，谓语动词用单数形式；指成员时，表示复数，谓语用复数形式：His family is going to move. My family is large.
My familyare very well.我全家人很健康。（指成员，谓语用复数）一般不再区分谓语的单复数形式。类似的还有：staff(职员)，class, team, public(公众)，government等.
2有些名词只表复数，谓语只用复数。如people, police, cattle等：The police are searching for a man with a big nose.
The cattle are eating grass in the field.
a deer(一只鹿)/ two deer(两只鹿) a fish(一条鱼)/ two fish(两条鱼)
a sheep(一只羊) / some sheep(一些羊)
另外fish若表示种类时，复数要在后加es: two fishes(两种鱼)
man→men; woman→women; foot→feet; tooth→teeth;
mouse→mice; child→children; ox→oxen (公牛)
scissors (剪刀) clothes(衣服) trousers (裤子) glasses(眼镜)
6有些名词只是不可数名词： It’s such great fun. What fun!
What good news! I won’t do anything in such bad weather.
Can you tell me some information? I like music which is popular.
类似：a piece of chalk much knowledge learn a little English等
leave Zhengzhou for Wuhan离开郑州到武汉
leave for Wuhan动身到武汉 (for后接目的地，而不是出发地)
2leave留下；忘记 I left my backpack at home.
leave后接地点，而forget后无地点。Sorry, I forgot the money.
95. ill与sick的区别：1都可译为“生病的”。ill只在系动词后作表语： Her mother was ill in bed. 但sick既可作表语（在美语中），也可作定语：Her mother was sick in bed. Jane is taking care of her sick mother. (此处是定语，不可用ill, 见下文ill用法)
2若ill作定语，译为“坏的，恶劣的”an ill person一个坏人
The boy always feels sick when he travels by car.
96.return用法：1“返回”，相当于“go back / get back / come back.. 如：Ann will visit you when he returns to London.
2“归还”，相当于“give back”如：I have returned the dictionary.
（当“归还”时是及物动词，后直接加物，若再接人时方可加to. 同样不可再跟back. 如：You should return the piano to Dick on time.）
97.favourite 与own的类似结构: 形容词性物主代词 + favorite +名词（某人最喜欢的...）或者 + own + 名词(某人自己的...)
如：My favorite animal is dog. He found hisown bike.
98.stop / start(begin) / forget(remember) / like/go on等动词：
1stop doing sth. 停止正在做的某事。stop to do sth. 停下来做某事（stop后是将要做的事）He was tired, so he stopped working.
He was tired, so he stopped to have a rest. 要注意有时两种形式会同时出现：He was tired, so he stopped working to have a rest.
2start/begin doing/to do 含义基本相同，但以下情况下start/begin后只接to do: ★若start / begin 已用进行时态时：He is just beginning / starting to write the letter. ★主语是物而不是人时：The ice began / started to melt. ★其后的动词与想法、感情有关时：He began / started to understand it.
3forget/remember to do sth. 忘记/想起将要做的事。
forget / remember doing sth. 忘记/想起已经做过的事。
4like doing sth. (因爱好而喜欢，表示一种习惯)
Jack likes sleeping in the class.
like to do sth(认为明智或正确而喜欢)
She likes to help others. （助人是一件正确的事，所以喜欢。）
I don’t like to play in the street. (在大街上玩不明智，故不喜欢)
有时区别不明显，接两形式都可。He likes watching / to watch TV.
5go on doing sth.继续做某事（上文所做的事）go on to do sth接下来做另一件事（不是上文所做之事）
(作主语)(作宾语) (后要再接名词) (后不再接名词) (主宾一致)
I me my pen/house... mine myself
you(你) you your bag/car... yours yourself
he him his desk/coat... his himself
she her her hair/books... hers herself
it it its tail/face... its itself
we us our teacher/room... ours ourselves
you(你们) you your class/hometown... yours yourselves
they them their school/fathers... theirs themselves
three→third five→fifth eight→eighth nine→ninth twelve→twelfth twenty→twentieth thirty等类推
另外，“四十”forty; 无字母u. “第九”ninth无字母e.
101.room /space /place: 1room“房间”（可数）a room/ two rooms
Could you make room for me? 你能为我让一下空间吗？
Is there room for me in the car? 车里有我的位子吗？
2space“空间”普通用语，表示万物存在之处，与“时间”（time）为相对概念。in the dark space在黑暗的宇宙空间（太空）
time and space时间和空间
Is there any space for me in the car? (此处和room的含义相当)
I want to live in a place which is warm in winter.
Mount Chaya is a wonderful place. 嵖岈山是一个奇妙之地。
1China“中国”Chinese（无复数形式）“中国人（的）/中文（的）/中国的” a Chinese/ two Chinese“一个/两个中国人”
Japan, Japanese 和此类似。
2England“英国（原义：英格兰）” (= Britain)
He is English.(前无冠词)= He is an Englishman.(前有冠词)“他是英国人”
注意复数：They are English. = They are Englishmen. (变为men)
3France“法国” French(无复数形式)“法国人(的) / 法语(的) / 法国的”
The lady is French. (前无冠词)= The lady is a Frenchwoman.(前有冠词)
注意复数：The ladies are French. = The ladies are Frenchwomen.
4Germany“德国”German“德国人(的) / 德语(的) / 德国的”
The boy is a German. (前有冠词) The boys are Germans.(复数加s.）
5America“美国” American“美国人（的）/ 美国的”
He is American.(前常无冠词）They are Americans.(复数加s)
103.易写错词形:◆noise(名词)“噪音”; noisy(形容词); noisily(副词) ◆health(名词)“健康”; healthy(形容词); healthily(副词)
◆luck(名词)“运气”; lucky(形容词)“幸运的”; luckily(副词)
◆succeed(动词)“成功”; success(名词); successful(形容词) successfully(副词) ◆save(动词)“救，节省，存”; safe(形容词)“安全的”; safety(名词)“安全，安全场所”safely（副词 ）◆true（形容词）“真的，对的”; truly(副词)“真正地”; truth(名词)“真理,事实”◆terrible(形容词)“难受的，可怕的”; terribly(副词)
104. job与work:1job, 可数：I have a job as a teacher.
Jobs are not easy to get. He wants a job. 2work, 不可数
I cannot find work in this town. Have you finished your work?
105.with和in表示“用”：1with用工具：write with a pen /a pencil/
a piece of chalk 2in用写字材料：write in ink / pen (前无冠词)
past seven: 2:02→two oh two→two past two 2分钟已过半点，如5:45→five forty-five→a quarter to six→fifteen to six 1:58→one fifty-eight→two to two 3刚好半点，如9:30→nine thirty→half past nine 4刚好整点，如11:00→eleven o’clock
107.be + 形 + of sb 与 for sb的区别：1It’s kind of you to help me.
解释：kind, nice, good, clever, foolish，lazy等词表示的是人的特点或性格。此句相当于在说You are kind to help me. 此情况下介词用的是of. 2It’s easy for you to do the work. 解释：easy，difficult, necessary, important, dangerous, interesting等词如果在句中不反映人的特点或性格，如此句中并不是在说You are easy. 而是“做
这项工作”这件事是容易的。此情况下介词用的是for. 又如：It’s dangerous for us to climb the mountain. “爬山”是危险的，不是说“我们”是“危险”的。for sb 是“就某人来说”之意。
108. take, bring, fetch与carry: 都译为“拿”。◆take“拿走”，从说话人处带到另一处 ◆bring“带来”，从另一处带到说话人处。◆fetch“去拿来”，先到另一地拿东西，然后再返回到说话人处。◆carry“拿、搬、扛”，没有特定方向性。
109. 条件与祈使: 有时条件句可以与祈使句有相同的意思。注意以下句子结构有何不同。
If you work hard, you will achieve your dream. 相当于: Work hard, and you will achieve…
If you don’t listen to me carefully, you won’t understand it. 相当于：Listen to me carefully, or you won’t understand it.
110. in / on / at + 时间：1in three days (“…时间后”，常用于一般将来时) in September
in 1998; in the 1860s(在十九世纪六十年代)
in the morning/ afternoon/ evening/ night
2on Christmas Eve; on October 1st;
on Sunday evenings; on a cold morning;
on Fridays; on New Year’s Day;
on the morning / afternoon / evening / night of September 10th. (morning / afternoon / evening / night若是early / late 修饰时，仍用介词in)
3at 6:00; at Christmas; at noon; at night
112. one day与someday/some day的区别：
1one day“某一天，有一天”既可用于一般过去时，也可用于一般将来时。One day, a stranger came to my house. I will achieve my dream one day. 2someday/some day“某一天”常用于一般将来时。可以和one day互换。I’m sure I can go to the Great Wall someday.
113. missing与lost: 都可译为“丢失的，失踪的”
但用的分别是动词的现在分词和过去分词形式。My pen is lost / missing. (表语)
I’ve found the missing / lost book. （定语）
114.常见部分名词及其修饰词：1price(价格)常用high 与low修饰。 sell sth at a high / low price 以高 / 低价出售 The price of the shoes is high / low. 2number(数量)常用big / large和small修饰 3quality(质量，品质)常用low / poor和high / good修饰。 4population(人口)常用big / large和small修饰